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A chronology of key events South Sudan

1899-1955 – South Sudan is part of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, under joint British-Egyptian rule.

1956 – Sudan gains independence.

First civil war

1962 – Civil war led by the southern separatist Anya Nya movement begins with north.

1969 – Group of socialist and communist Sudanese military officers led by Col Jaafar Muhammad Numeiri seizes power; Col Numeiri outlines policy of autonomy for south.

1972 – Government concedes a measure of autonomy for southern Sudan in a peace agreement signed in Addis Ababa.

1978 – Oil discovered in Unity State in southern Sudan.

Second civil war

1983 – Fighting breaks out again between north and south Sudan, under leadership of John Garang’s Sudanese People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM), after Sudanese President Jaafar Numeiri abolishes South Sudan’s autonomy.

1988 – Democratic Unionist Party – part of Sudan’s ruling coalition government – drafts cease-fire agreement with the SPLM, but it is not implemented.

1989 – Military seizes power in Sudan.

2001 – Sudanese Islamist leader Hassan Al-Turabi’s party, the Popular National Congress, signs memorandum of understanding with the southern rebel SPLM’s armed wing, the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA). Mr Al-Turabi is arrested the next day.

2002 – Talks in Kenya lead to a breakthrough agreement between southern rebels and Sudanese government on ending the civil war. The Machakos Protocol provides for the south to seek self-determination after six years.

North-south peace deal

2005 January – North/South Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) ends civil war; deal provides for a permanent ceasefire, autonomy for the south, a power-sharing government involving rebels in Khartoum and a south Sudanese referendum on independence in six years’ time.

2005 July – Former southern rebel leader John Garang is sworn in as first vice-president. A new Sudanese constitution which gives the south a large degree of autonomy is signed.

2005 August – South Sudanese leader John Garang is killed in a plane crash. He is succeeded by Salva Kiir Mayardiit.

2005 October – Autonomous government is formed in South Sudan, in line with the January 2005 peace deal. The administration is dominated by former rebels.

Fragile peace

2006 November – Hundreds die in fighting centred on the southern town of Malakal – the heaviest between northern Sudanese forces and former rebels since the 2005 peace deal.

2008 March – Tensions rise over clashes between an Arab militia and SPLM in the disputed oil-rich Abyei area on the north-south divide – a key sticking point in the 2005 peace accord.

2009 July – North and south Sudan say they accept ruling by arbitration court in The Hague shrinking disputed Abyei region and placing the major Heglig oil field in the north.

Independence referendum

2009 December – Leaders of North and South reach deal on terms of referendum on independence due in South by 2011.

2011 January – The people of South Sudan vote in favour of full independence from Sudan.

2011 February – Clashes between the security forces and rebels in southern Sudan’s Jonglei state leave more than 100 dead.

2011 May – North occupies disputed border region of Abyei.

2011 June – Governments of north and south sign accord to demilitarize the disputed Abyei region and let in an Ethiopian peacekeeping force.

New state born

2011 9 July – Independence day.

2011 August – UN says at least 600 people are killed in ethnic clashes in Jonglei state.

2012 January – South Sudan declares a disaster in Jonglei State after some 100,000 flee clashes between rival ethnic groups.

2012 April – After weeks of border fighting, South Sudan troops temporarily occupy the oil field and border town of Heglig before being repulsed. Sudanese warplanes raid the Bentiu area in South Sudan.

Refugee from border areas of Sudan

2012 August – Some 200,000 refugees flee into South Sudan to escape fighting between Sudanese army and rebels in Sudan’s southern border states.

2012 September – The presidents of Sudan and South Sudan agree trade, oil and security deals after days of talks in Ethiopia.

2013 March – Sudan and South Sudan agree to resume pumping oil after a bitter dispute over fees that saw production shut down more than a year earlier. They also agreed to withdraw troops from their border area to create a demilitarised zone.

2013 June – President Kiir dismisses Finance Minister Kosti Manibe and Cabinet Affairs Minister Deng Alor over a multi-million dollar financial scandal, and lifts their immunity from prosecution.

2013 July – President Kiir dismisses entire cabinet and Vice-President Riek Machar in a power struggle within the governing Sudan People’s Liberation Movement.

Civil war

2013 December – Civil war erupts as President Salva Kiir accuses his former vice-president, Riek Machar, of plotting to overthrow him.

Rebel factions seize control of several regional towns, thousands are killed and many more flee. Uganda troops intervene on the government’s side.

South Sudanese rebel leader Riek Machar at an army barracks in South Sudan's Upper Nile State on 14 April 2014

2014 January – A ceasefire is signed but broken several times over subsequent weeks, and further talks in February fail to end the violence that displaces more than a million people by April.

2014 April – UN says pro-Machar forces sack the oil town of Bentiu, killing hundreds of civilians.

2014 August – Peace talks begin in Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa and drag on for months as fighting continues.

2016 April – Riek Machar finally returns to Juba and is sworn in as first vice-president in a new unity government – but is sacked in July after further conflict and goes back into exile.

2016 November – UN sacks Kenyan commander of its peacekeeping mission over the failure to protect civilians in Juba during July violence. Kenya withdraws its troops from the peacekeeping mission.

Japanese peacekeepers arrive South Sudan, the first time in nearly 70 years that Japan has deployed its soldiers overseas with a broad mandate to use force if necessary.

2016 December – A UN commission on human rights says a process of ethnic cleansing is underway in several parts of the country, a claim that President Salva Kiir denies.

2017 February – A famine is declared in parts of South Sudan in what the UN describes as a man-made catastrophe caused by civil war and economic collapse.

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6 hours ago

Jean Marc Henry

Rien ne tombera des cieux pourquoi attendre ?

Vivre maintenant !

Je me suis rendue compte que c’était aller contre le flux de la vie. A contre-courant. Vivre dans la peur plutôt que dans l’amour. Dans le futur plutôt que dans le présent.

Oui, tu sais, le passé et le futur n’existent pas. Seul le moment PRÉSENT existe.

Courir après tes rêves pendant toute ta vie, ce serait passer à côté de ta vie justement. Ce serait rater l’essentiel : vivre et savourer le moment présent.

Vous avez le pouvoir de créer votre propre réalité. Vous êtes libre de votre choix. Vous avez le libre-arbitre. Faites alors en sorte que votre vie soit le reflet de ce que vous voulez vraiment. Appliquez les recettes qui marchent. Agissez dans l’esprit d’améliorer votre vie. Acceptez ce qu’il vous arrive. Dites non à ce qui ne vous plaît pas ou plus. Les freins n’existent que là où vous les voyez. Les obstacles ne sont que là où vous acceptez qu’ils soient. Supprimez ces freins.

Contournez ces obstacles.

Et osez vivre une vie où vous vous sentez bien ici et maintenant, c’est-à-dire à chaque instant. N’est-ce pas notre seul but à tous ?

Regardez votre épouse, regardez votre époux, regardez vos enfants. Serrez les dans les bras, personne n’est éternel.

Beaucoup passent leur vie à courir après un idéal pourquoi a la finalité ?
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1 day ago

Jean Marc Henry

TOUS DES CROYANTS

Si je ne crois en rien c'est que ma croyance se limite à moi même.

A religieux ou religieux, sans ignorance nous sommes des véritables croyants.

Agnostique, cherches au dedans de toi même le secret de ton divin dehors disait Garat.

Car la véritable connaissance des choses commence par la connaissance de soi même.

Il y'a ceux qui croient en un Seul Dieu, créateur de l'univers et de tous les êtres Il y'a ceux que les yeux ne contemplent que la beauté de la nature façonnée d'une main invisible qui soulève tant d'étonnement encore.

Il y'a ceux qui parcourent les terres de Médine et de Jérusalem sur les traces des prophètes et hommes pieux qui ont marqués leur foi.

Il y'a les sages et les érudits qui défilent sur le chemin de l'Égypte et d'Athènes pour assouvir leur désir de la connaissance !

Des loges maçonniques à la gnose, des monastères aux religions monothéistes, nous ne cherchons que la lumière car nul être ne veut demeurer dans les ténèbres.

Ce qui est lumière chez les uns est ténèbres chez les autres, Et la seule vérité en qui l'on croit est la véritable illusion que l'autre combat.

Nous aspirons tous à la lumière mais nous n'empruntons pas tous la même voie Ce que l'oeil ne voit plus se cache juste au fond de nous même et ceux qui connaissent l'être suprême ne le connaissent que par la foi.

Nul peut douter que le soleil, la lune, les eaux nous cachent tant de mystères qui font d'eux des dieux.

Forêts sacrées ou monts divins.

L'homme se divinise ou divinise tant des choses à travers la force mentale qui accompagne sa foi.

Nous sommes des dieux très semblables à ce que nous avons comme Dieu Qu'il soit ici bas, sous la mère, sous la terre ou dans les airs.

A religieux ou religieux Sans ignorance nous sommes des véritables croyants Si nous ne croyons en rien C'est que nous croyons en nous même.

Dieu est dans le cœur des hommes, pas dans les murs de pierre.
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